Monitoring and Modeling of Marine Ecosystems (MMME)

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Besides continuing with the ongoing projects on monitoring the environment and productivity patterns of Indian EEZ and time series studies on biogeochemical aspects in the estuarine and coastal waters off Kochi, two modelling projects viz; Coastal upwelling systems-SEAS and Warm pool ecosystem of Lakshadweep are proposed to be taken up during the XIIth Plan as a collaborative work of CMLRE and ICMAM.

a) Objectives

  1. Collection of physical, chemical and biological data covering the 6 marine ecosystems within the Indian EEZ
  2. Synthesis of available data and generation of data products
  3. Quantify primary production, grazing and export flux for each season
  4. Elucidate the role of microzooplankton in the food web of these marine ecosystems
  5. Explain seasonal/interannual variations in environment and productivity and its influence on Marine living Resources and
  6. Time-series biogeochemical measurements & studies [SIBER}
  7. Develop models on SEAS upwelling system and LIE warmpool.
  8. Hydrobiology of Andaman sea& tip of peninsular India.
  9. Qualitative and quantitative estimates of gelatinous zooplankton off the east and west coasts.
  10. Studies on fish eggs and larvae of SEAS and Acetes centered food web of NEAS

b) Participating Institutions:

Centre for Marine Living Resources & Ecology, Kochi.; NIO –Goa/Mumbai; CUSAT-Kochi; CAS-Annamali; KUFOS- Kochi; ICMAM-Chenni.

c) Implementation Plan:

Programme will be implemented as a multi-institutional scheme coordinated by CMLRE. Routine measurements of the 6 major ecosystems covering the Indian EEZ will be carried out onboard FORV. Sagar Sampada. Time-series measurements along the Kochi transect is being undertaken as part of SIBER programme. NIO-Goa and CMLRE together will focus on the hydobiological studies of Andamans and the eddies of BoB. The warm pool of Lakshdweep (LIE) will be studied and modeled by CMLRE. Ecotone at the tip of peninsular India will be studied by CMLRE and CUSAT. Gelatinous zooplankton of BoB and AS will be studied by CAS & KUFOS respectively. Ocean models developed by CMLRE will be integrated with the coastal sea models of ICMAM.

d) Deliverables:

Ecosystem models for SEAS & LIE.

Trophodynamic model for SEAS & LIE.

Models on Tertiary production.

Predictive model for pelagic fishery and selected tunas

3.6.5.2 Studies on Harmful Algal Blooms in the Indian EEZ (Multi-Institutional)

The frequency and extent of HAB in the world oceans is believed to be on the rise. Realizing the possible consequences of these blooms on the marine ecosystems and the marine biota the Intergovernmental Panel on HAB [IP-HAB] of the IOC have taken up HAB studies as a thrust area of research. India is implementing the HAB monitoring of the Indian EEZ since 1998 and proposes to continue this during the XII plan period also. Continuation of this scheme is important as the HABs are expected to influence the spread of OMZ.

a) Objectives

  1. Monitoring and surveillance of HABs in the coastal and open oceans of Indian EEZ
  2. Development of a data base on HAB species of Indian Ocean as per IP-HAB format
  3. Studies on HAB cysts and potentially harmful benthic micro algae
  4. Studies on HAB toxins and its impacts on shellfishes and finfishes
  5. HAB toxins in desalination plants
  6. Development of Trichodesmium bloom retrieval algorithm
  7. Studies for early detection, monitoring, forecasting of algal blooms using field and satellite measurements - Development of HAB models
  8. Organizing Regional workshops on HABs.

b) Participating Institutions:

CMLRE-Kochi; INCOIS; CAS-Annamalai; IISER-Culcutta; Kerala Univ; Cochin Univ; CIFT-Kochi; Goa Univ; SAC-Ahmadabad; Selvam Arts & Science college, Namakkal.

c) Implementation Plan:

Open ocean HAB will be monitored by CMLRE and coastal ocean HABs by the coastal universities. Studies on HAB cysts will be undertaken by the Kerala University. CIFT will undertake HAB toxicological studies. Satellite based retrieval algorithms will be attempted by SAC. HAB modeling will be undertaken by CMLRE & INCOIS.

d) Deliverables:

Species specific HAB models.
Model to evaluate system response to HABs.
Identification and preservation of HAB cysts.

3.6.5.3 Marine Benthos of the Indian EEZ

The sea floor harbours a variety of organisms, which contributes substantially to tertiary production. Besides being important from the biodiversity angle, these organisms also form food to several demersal fish species. Bottom trawling operations continiouslly disturb the ocean floor and is a constant threat to the benthos and the fishery it supports. A data base on the marine benthos of the shelf and slope areas of Indian EEZ has been generated under the MLR scheme which needs periodic revaluation.

a) Objectives

  1. Role of micro-benthos in the process of re-mineralization (SEAS, shelf)
  2. Detailed study of benthos of continental margin upto 2500m depths (Arabian Sea)
  3. Life stages of macro-benthos and their contribution to pelagic food webs (SEAS)
  4. Studies on benthos of continental shelf and slope of East coast, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands
  5. Studies on epifauna (Echinoderms, sponges, crustaceans etc.) of the Indian EEZ
  6. Decadal changes in macrofaunal composition of the shelf area.

b) Participating Institutions:

  1. Centre for Marine Living Resources & Ecology, Kochi
  2. Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi
  3. CAS-MB, Annamalai University
  4. Pondicherry University, Port Blair Campus.

c) Implementation Plan:

Studies on benthos upto 2500m depth zones will be carried out by CMLRE. A&N will be covered by Pondicheery Univ and Lakshadweep by CMLRE. Studies on microbenthos and the process of mineralization will be done by the CUSAT.

d) Deliverables:

Digitized Information system on Marine Benthos.
Advisory on Closed Fishing Season
Atlas on Marine Benthos of Indian EEZ.

3.6.5.4Assessment of deep sea and distant water fishery resources (Multi-Institutional)

Currently our fishery is restricted upto the 100 to 150m depth zones; despite the fact that approximately one million tons of fish can be harvested from the areas beyond this. Studies undertaken by MLRP so far has shown promising results for commercial scale harvesting of these resources. Neverthless, it is mandatory to quantify these resources on a temporal and spatiall scales and understand their growth dynamics before deep sea fishery advisories are disseminated.. FURTHER, DISTANT WATER FISHER WHICH IS VAUGE IN India need to be focused through survey and assessment of potential resources such as the Krill resources of SO, the myctophid resources of the Arabian sea, Tuna resources of the Central Indian Ocean, etc. The goal is to provide advisory on commercial exploitation.

a) Objectives

  1. Assessment of demersal fishery resources in the 200-1000m depth zone of Indian EEZ
  2. Assessment of myctophidBenthosema sp. in the Arabian Sea
  3. Assessment of fishery resources in the Central and Southern Indian Ocean
  4. Tuna Fishery Forecast system (TUFFS)
  5. Southern Ocean MLR Survey & Assessments

b) Participating Institutions:

Centre for Marine Living Resources & Ecology, Kochi; INCOIS; CIFT; CMFRI; KUFOS; CUSAT

c) Implementation Plan:

All surveys will be conducted onboard FORV Sagar Sampada. For deep-sea demersal operations standard gears such as expo model trawl and the HSDT (CV) will be utilized. Myctophid and krill surveys will be undertaken using an imported krill net. The MWT of CIFT will also be attempted on an experimental basis. Biomass estimations will be attempted through a combination of acoustic and krill surveys.

d) Deliverables:

Deep sea fisher Advisories
Advisories for harvesting Myctophid resources.
Post harvest technologies on Myctophid
Advisory on Krill harvesting and utilization
Models correlating fishery to environment.

3.6.5.5 Southern Ocean MLR

Southern Ocean (South of 55°S up to Antarctic Continent) is an ocean with unique characteristics. The living resources of which are exploited in a sustainable way by Member countries of the Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) which is an International body of 27 countries. India represented by CMLRE is a member of CCAMLR since 1984. Southern Ocean ecosystems are dominated by the Antarctic Krill Euphausia superba which form the key species in the food web. Commercially important fishes include the tooth fish (Patagonian tooth fish), Ice-fish (Champsocephalus gunnari), Mackeral fish etc. which are all being exploited. Further, the unique features of the southern Ocean and the adaptations of the living resources to these environments make it an important area for biological research with focus on identification of novel microbes and other bioactive materials and molecules. Though the southern Ocean is covered for most part of the ear by thick snow, exploitations of the resources are possible during the summer season. Identification of the front and zones of southern Ocean is one important requirement for exploitation of these resources. Through proper planning and management, India will be in a position to divert source of its fishing fleets to the southern Ocean as for distant water fishing (Central Indian Ocean, western Arabian sea etc) which can reduce the fishing pressure on the fisher within the Indian EEZ.

a) Objectives

  1. Identify the fronts and zones along the western Indian Ocean sector (CCAMLR sub area 58.6, 58.7, 58.4.49 and 58.4.46) and south Atlantic Sector (Sub area 48.6).
  2. Make assessment of the krill resources in these areas and develop advisories thereof.
  3. Undertake census of marine life at these areas.
  4. Identify microbes and other organisms for extraction of bioactive molecules
  5. Represent India in CCAMLR meetings.

b) Participating Institutions

CMLRE-Kochi, NIO-Goa, CMFRI-Kochi, CIFT-Kochi, IISER-Kolkatta, CAS-Annamalai Univ. NBFGR-Lucknow etc.

c) Implementation plan

Cruises to western Indian sectors and south-east Atlantic sector of southern Ocean will be conducted during summer monsoon every year. National level participation in these cruises will be ensured. FORV Sagar Sampada and or hired vessel will be utilized for these studies, till the time the new fishery Oceanographic Vessel is commissioned. Once exploitable resources are identified and the economic returns evaluated private fishing industries will be encouraged to undertake distant water fishing as a major activity. Concurrently R & D efforts will be made for the extraction of bioactive molecules on materials found in these organisms and for the commercialization of such value added products.

d) Deliverables

  1. Advisories on Antarctic fronts and zones where exploitation of resources are possible
  2. Report on assessment of resources and economic viability of harvesting.
  3. Value added products from krill and other Antarctic living resources
  4. Identification of novel microbes and technology for their utilization.
  5. Develop national expertise on southern Ocean Living Resources.

3.6.5.6 Integrated Taxonomic Information System for Indian Ocean (ITIS-IndO) (Multi-Institutional)

The program components of IT IS-IndO includes (i) Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), Census of Marine Life-Indian Ocean (IO-CoML), FORV Data and Referral Centre (CMLRE) and National Marine Museum and Taxonomic Centre (NMM-TC). The CMLRE is the IOC recognized nodal agency for the implementation of IndOBIS and CoML.

a) Objectives:

  1. Develop Information System on the marine biota of Indian Ocean.
  2. Identify and catalogue all species of organisms in Indian Ocean through DNA Bar-Coding.
  3. Maintenance of voucher samples and specimens from Indian Ocean and act as a Regional Repository.

b) Participating Institutions:

CMLRE, Kochi; NIO, Mumbai, MS University, INCOIS; NBFGRI; ZSI; IISER; CMFRI; KUFOS; CAS Annamali; IISC-Bangalore; CUSAT; Adikavi Univ; Goa Univ; NIO-Mumbai; Andhra University, Indian Institute of Science, CARI, Port Blair; Pondicherry University, Port Blair.

c ) Implementation Plan:

OBIS and CoML are activities initiated during 2010-11 and proposed to be continued during the XIIth plan period also. OBIS aims to develop an information system on species records from the Indian Ocean on a fine scale. OBIS port at CMLRE will be linked to the OBIS international website and will form a component of the world ocean bio-geographic Information system. Through the CoML programs, DNA finger prints for all marine eukaryots from Indian Ocean will be generated and deposited in the GenBank. FORV Data and Referral Centre is an ongoing activity of CMLRE wherein data and samples collected through the various cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada are collated, quality checked and stored/preserved for future references. With the vast taxonomic activities undertaken/proposed under MLR, it is proposed to establish an NMM-TC for India at the new CMLRE premise, which will form the hub of marine taxonomic and biodiversity studies in India. The NMM-TC shall also complement the marine Oceanarium to be set up by the Government of Kerala in the adjoining site.

d) Deliverables:

Biogeographical Information System on Indian Ocean.
Catalouges for major groups from Indian Ocean.
Indian Ocean Marine Museum.

3.6.5.7 MLR technology Development (MLR-TD) (Multi-Institutional)

Under the MLR-TD; various technology development projects such as technology for; Black-lip pearl production; Breeding and rearing of ornamentals; various endangered marine gastropods etc are taken up with a view to benefit Islanders. Also in line with the Drugs from the sea Programme; extraction of bioactive materials ans molecules from deep sea organisms will be attempted. Another area of focus will be to establish expertise in the field of Bioacoustics

a) Objectives

  1. Commercialization of ornamental fish and live-bait fish culture techniques
  2. Marine biogeographic Information System for Lakshdweep
  3. Materials and molecules from marine Organisms
  4. Technology for sonic characterization of Marine species
  5. Indigenous development of pop-up archival tags.

b) Participating Institutions:

Centre for Marine Living Resources & Ecology, Kochi; CAS-MB; CMFRI; CUSAT; Amrita Institute; NIO, Kochi; Institute of Science-Mumbai; VIT-Vellore; CIFT-Kochi, IIT, Delhi; NPOL, Kochi.

c) Implementation Plan:

Black-lip pearl production and its commercialization will be undertaken jointly by CMFRI & CMLRE. Hatchery technology for marine ornamentals will be strengthend at the CMLRE field station Agatti. CMLRE & CAS Annamali will be the collaborating agencies. Bioactive molecules and materials will be attempted from deep sea organism collected onboard FORV Sagar Sampada. Bioacoustics will be implemented jointly by CMLRE, NPOL, IIT-Delhi and CUSAT-DoE.

d) Deliverables:

Technology for production of Black pearls
Technology on breeding & rearing of marine ornamentals
One or more bioactive molecule and material from marine biota

3.6.5.9 Drugs from the Sea

The Drugs from the Sea is an on-going programme of the Ministry for the last few plan periods. The focus so far was concentrated on extraction of bioactive molecules from organisms found in the coastal waters. Since FORV Sagar Sampada is involved in the collection of such samples from deep waters (from depths upto 1500 m) there is a scope to extent our activities to the deep sea microbes and organisms, which definitely have a greater scope in sticking novel molecules and drugs. Initially, the CMLRE will focus on the collection and routine sampling of these organisms and if extracts with promising potentials are obtained these will be sent to the core group of the drugs from the sea programme for further screening, isolation and purification of these extracts. Further, the CMLRE have expertise in the genetic manipulation of microbes and for undertaking extensive culturing of these organisms. Commercial scale culturing and harvesting of these organisms, will be an important contribution of CMLRE to these programme. The CMLRE will also act as the repository of all voucher samples collected under the drugs from the Sea programme. It is also proposed to establish a Centre of Excellence on drug research at CMLRE.

a) Objectives

  1. Collection and preservation of samples from deep sea
  2. Extraction of bioactive compounds and initial screening.
  3. Transfer of potential candidates to the core group of Drugs from the Sea programme for further screening and testing.
  4. Maintain voucher samples of all samples
  5. Undertake commercial scale culturing on microbes and marine algae.
  6. Establish a Centre of Excellence in drug research at CMLRE.

b) Participating Institutes:

CMLRE-Kochi, Amirta Institute of Medical Sciences-Kochi, Dept. of Biotechnology, CUSAT, Vellore Institute of Technology, and Institute of Science-Mumbai in association with the group engaged in drugs from the sea research.

c) Implementation plan:

Deep sea microbes and microalgae will be collected following standard procedures utilizing FORV Sagar Sampada from depths up to 1500 m. Preliminary extraction and testing of bioactivity will be carried-out following the protocols established by the Drugs from the Sea Research groups. Mass culture of microalgae and microbes will be attempted to ensure commercial scale availability of potential organisms. Genetic manipulation will be attempted in standardizing culture techniques. All voucher samples will be maintained at a specialized repository with accession numbers. Centre for Excellence on Drug Research will be established in a phased manner, starting with the XIIth plan.

d) Deliverables

  1. Supply of deep sea organism showing good bioactivity including those from Southern |Ocean.
  2. Commercial scale culture techniques for potential species.
  3. Genetic manipulation techniques for extraction of enzymes and mass production of microbes.
  4. Fermentation activities.
  5. Establishment of central repository of organisms from Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean with potential bioactive properties.

Budget requirement : 150 crores

(Rs. In crores)

Budget Requirement
Name of the Scheme 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 Total
Marine Living Resources& Building 38.00 44.00 28.00 22.00 18.00 150.00

 

Last Updated On 12/22/2014 - 16:17
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